Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Lesson 6: Reading

I did this during my down-time at work, ten minutes at a time. There are probably mistakes. One thing I can't get straight yet is that the "Y" on my keyboard is a "u" and the "U" is a "th."

1. ἡ σοφροσύνη κόσμος ἐστι γέροθσι καὶ νεανίαις.

ἡ σοφροσύνη the self-control
κόσμος order, ornament, world
ἐστι is
γέρουσι to old men
καὶ and
νεανίαις to young men

Self-control is an ornament for old and young men.

2. τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ τοιηταὶ αἰθέρα ὀνομάζουσιν.

τὸν οὐρανὸν the heaven
οἱ τοιηταὶ the poets
αἰθέρα sky
ὀνομάζουσιν they call

The poets call heaven the sky.

3. τὸν ἥλιον λέγουσιν ὀφθαλμὸν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.

τὸν ἥλιον the sun
λέγουσιν they call
ὀφθαλμὸν eye
τοῦ οὐρανοῦ of the heaven

The sun they call the eye of heaven.
They call the sun the eye of heaven.

4. ἔχω πλοῦτον ὥστε ἀγοράζειν τὰ δῶρα.

ἔχω I have, hold
πλοῦτον wealth
ὥστε so that
ἀγοράζειν to buy; cf. agora, market
τὰ δῶρα the gifts

I have wealth so that I may buy gifts.
I have wealth in order to buy gifts.

A note on ὥστε:

"Result is expressed in Greek in two ways:

(a) Actual result is expressed by
ὥστε plus the indicative. The negative is οὐ. He did not come, so that the Greeks were worried. οὐχ ἧκεν⋅ ὥσθ᾽ οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐφρόντιζον.

(b) Natural result, which often denotes intention [in my copy of C&P, intention is crossed out and necessary, unavoidable consequence is scribbled in; my prof evidently had a problem with it . . . although ], tendency, or capacity, is expressed by
ὥστε and the infinitive. The negative is μή. He was so brave as not to flee. οὕτως ἀγαθὸς ἦν ὥστε μὴ φεύγειν.

5. καλὸν καὶ γέρουσι μανθάνειν σοφά.

καλὸν beautiful thing
καὶ and, merely, also
γέρουσι to/for old men
μανθάνειν to learn
σοφά wise things, wisdom

To learn wise things is also a beautiful thing for old men.

6. ὁ γέρων τοῖς νεανίαις ἔφη τὴν σωφροσύνην εἶναι κόσμον.

ὁ γέρων the old man
τοῖς νεανίαις to the young men
ἔφη said
τὴν σωφροσύνην the self-control
εἶναι to be
κόσμον an ornament

The old men said to the young men that self-control is an ornament.

7. ὁ πολίτης τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις πιστεύει οἵ φίλιοί εἰσιν.

ὁ πολίτης the citizen
τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις to the Athenians
πιστεύει he/she/it trusts
οἵ who
φίλιοί friends
εἰσιν are

The citizen trusts the Athenians who are friends.

8. τοὺς στρατιώτας ἄχει εἰς τὴν σκηνὴν ἐν ᾗ ἐστιν ὁ πλοῦτος.

τοὺς στρατιώτας the soldiers (acc.)
ἄχει he, she, it leads
εἰς into
τὴν σκηνὴν the stage, stage building, tent
ἐν ᾗ in which
ἐστιν is
ὁ πλοῦτος wealth.

He leads the soldiers into the tent in which the wealth is.

9. ὥστε οὐ νομίζουσι τὸν θάνατον καὶ ὕπνον εἶναι.

ὥστε and so, so that
οὐ νομίζουσι they do not think
τὸν θάνατον the death
καὶ and, also, merely
ὕπνον sleep
εἶναι to be

And so they did not think death to be merely sleep.

10. ὁ σοφὸς ἡσθχίαν ἄγει ἐν ταῖς συμφοραῖς.

ὁ σοφὸς the wise man
ἡσυχίαν calmness
ἄγει holds, has
ἐν ταῖς συμφοραῖς in the misfortunes

The wise man holds (to) calmness in misfortunes.
The wise man is calm in misfortunes.

11. οὐκ ἔφη εἶναι ποιητής, ἀλλὰ κριτὴς τῶν ποιητῶν.

οὐκ not
ἔφη he said
εἶναι to be
ποιητής a poet
ἀλλὰ but
κριτὴς a judge
τῶν ποιητῶν
of the poets

He did not say he was a poet, but a judge of poets.

Sunday, September 16, 2007

Pharr's Homeric Greek, p. 6

I own a number of beginner's ancient Greek textbooks. There's Chase and Phillips, but there's also Hansen and Quinn's Greek: An Intensive Course, and Pharr's Homeric Greek: A Book for Beginners. I worked through Chase and Phillips for my course, but I only went through a fraction of either of the other two texts.

So in an effort to get my money's worth, I've decided to work through Pharr and Hansen and Quinn.

Here's some translations of lesson 3 on pp. 6 of Pharr.

Lesson 3

1. βουλαὶ καλαὶ καὶ κακαὶ.

βουλαὶ plans
καλαὶ good (ly), noble, handsome, brave, fair, beautiful (pl.)
καὶ and
κακαὶ bad, poor, ugly, mean, cowardly, evil, wicked (pl.)

Good and bad plans.
Plans (are) good and bad.
Plans (are) brave and cowardly.

Note: Chase and Phillips note that short sentences sometimes lack a verb. My Greek professor said that the way we know something is a sentence in Greek is if it's got a period at the end of it. (The nirvanic gong went off in my head when I heard this. I fasted for days.) Pharr doesn't say as much; also, he gives English fragments with periods at the end of them in his English to Greek exercises. So I give the fragment and what I think the complete sentence should be.

Pharr's footnote on
boulai refers us to note 660 on p. 203:

660. Use of Article. -- Observe that there are no words used regularly in Homeric Greek with the meaning of the English article, either definite (the) or indefinite (a, an). One decides from the context whether or not the English article is to be employed in translation.

2. τίς ἔχει βουλὴν καλή;

τίς who, which, what
ἔχει he/she/it holds
βουλὴν plan, counsel, wish, will
καλήν beautiful, good, noble, brave

Who has a good plan?

3. τί ἔχουσιν;

τί which, what, why
ἔχουσιν they

What do they have?

4. καλαὶ βουλαὶ ἦσαν φίλαι.

καλαὶ good, beautiful, noble, handsome, brave, fair (pl.)
βουλαὶ plans, wishes, wills, counsels, councils
ἦσαν they were, there were
φίλαι dear ones, darling ones, lovely ones, beloved ones

Good plans were dear.

5. τίς ἦν καλή;

τίς who, which, what
ἦν he/she/it was; there was
καλή good, beautiful, fair, handsome, brave

Who was beautiful?

6. δεινὴ κλαγγὴ ἦν ἐν Χρύσῃ καλῇ.

δεινὴ fearful, terrible
κλαγγὴ uproar, roar, noise (CLANG)
ἦν he, she, it was; there was
ἐν Χρύσῃ καλῇ in beautiful Chrysa

There was a fearful uproar in beautiful Chrysa.

7. ἔχουσι βουλὰς καλὰς καὶ φίλας.

ἔχουσι they have, hold
βουλὰς plans, wills, wishes, councils, counsels (pl. acc.)
καλὰς beautiful, good, fair, handsome, brave (pl. acc.)
καὶ and
φίλας dear, beloved (pl. acc.)

They have good and dear plans.

8. τί ἦν κλαγγὴ δεινὴ ἐν Χρύσῃ καλῇ;

τί which, what, why
ἦν he, she, it was; there was
κλαγγὴ uproar, noise
δεινὴ terrible, fearful
ἐν Χρύσῃ καλῇ in beautiful Chrysa

Why was there a terrible uproar in Chrysa?

9. κακῆς βουλῆς.

Of the evil plan. From the evil plan.

10. κακῇς βουλῇς.

To, for, by, with evil plans.

11. κακάων βουλάων.

Of, from the evil plans

12. κακὴ βουλή, κακῇ βουλῇ, κακὴν βουλήν, κακὰς βουλάς.

an/the evil plan (nom.), to/for/with/by the/an evil plan, an/the evil plan (acc), the/an evil plans (acc.)


Goethe's Poetry and Truth has the following epigraph from Menander:

ὁ μὴ δαρεὶς ἄνθρωπος οὐ παιδεύεται.

ὁ . . . ἄνθρωπος the man, human being
μὴ δαρεὶς has not been flogged, thrashed, flayed?
οὐ παιδεύεται. has not been educated

We're getting into the middle or passive voice here, which is many chapters ahead in Chase and Phillips, but it is the beginning of the school year, so . . .

He who has not been thrashed has not been educated.
He who has not been disciplined has not been educated.

I think δαρεὶς could also mean "has been flogged" or even "flayed." Anybody know the infinitive of δαρεὶς?

δαρμός, a flogging, flaying, seems to be the noun. . . .

Lesson 5: Review

1. μικρὰ ἡ σκηνὴ ἐν ᾗ ἐστιν ὁ στρατιώτης.

μικρὰ small
ἡ σκηνὴ the tent, stage, stage building
ἐν ᾗ in which
ἐστιν is
ὁ στρατιώτης the soldier

Small is the tent in which the soldier is.

2. δικαία ἡ τῶν ἀδίκων συμφορά.

δικαία just
ἡ . . .
συμφορά the misfortunes/vicissitudes
τῶν ἀδίκων of the unjust ones

Just are the misfortunes of the unjust (ones).

3. ἡ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ ἡσυχία καλή ἐστιν.

ἡ . . . ἡσυχία the calmness
ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ in the sea
καλή beautiful
ἐστιν is

Calmness in the sea is a beautiful thing.

4. οἱ νόμοι τῶν πολιτῶν ἄξιοι.

οἱ νόμοι the laws
τῶν πολιτῶν of the governments
ἄξιοι worthy

The laws of the governments are worthy.

5. οἱ θεοὶ καὶ αἱ θεαὶ οὔποτε ἄδικοι τοῖς αγαθοῖς.

οἱ θεοὶ the gods
καὶ and
αἱ θεαὶ the goddesses
οὔποτε never
ἄδικοι unjust
τοῖς αγαθοῖς to the good ones

The gods and the goddesses are never unjust to the good ones.

Saturday, September 15, 2007

Lesson 5: Reading

1. οἱ νόμοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους παιδεύουσιν.

οἱ νόμοι the laws (pl. masc. nom.)
τοὺς ἀνθρώπους the men (pl. masc. acc.)
παιδεύουσιν they educate (verb, present tense, 3rd person plural)

The laws educate the men.

2. πιστεύουμεν τοῖς τῶν φίλων λόγοις.

πιστεύουμεν we trust (present tense verb, 1st person plural)
τοῖς . . .
λόγοις to the words/speeches/reasons (pl.dat.masc.)
τῶν φίλων of the the friends (pl. gen. masc.)

We (give) trust to the words of the friends.
We trust the words of the friends.

3. τοὺς φίλους πείθει πιστεύειν τοῖς νόμοις.

τοὺς φίλους the friends (acc.)
πείθει he/she/it persuades (subject, verb)
πιστεύειν to trust (inf.)
τοῖς νόμοις to the laws (dat.)

He persuades the friends to trust the laws.

4. ἡ ἐπιυμία ἡδονῶν πολλάκις ἀνθρώπους εἰς ἀδικίαν ἄγει.

ἡ ἐπιυμία the desire
ἡδονῶν of pleasures
πολλάκις often
ἀνθρώπους men
εἰς ἀδικίαν into injustice
ἄγει he/she/it leads

The desire of pleasures often leads men into injustice.
The desire for pleasure often leads men into injustice.

5. κακὸν φέρουσι καρπὸν οἱ κακοὶ φίλοι.

κακὸν evil
φέρουσι they bear
καρπὸν fruit
οἱ κακοὶ the evils
φίλοι friends

The evil friends bear evil fruit.
Evil friends bear evil fruit.

6. ἔφη κακοὺς φίλους φέρειν καρπὸν κακόν.

ἔφη he said
κακοὺς evils
φίλους friends
φέρειν to bear
καρπὸν fruit
κακόν evil

He said the evil friends (to) bear evil fruit.
He said that the evil friends were bearing evil fruit.

C&P, p. 15:

"Many verbs of saying and thinking, as φημί (t0 be studied later) and νομίζω, are followed by indirect statement in the infinitive. In such cases the verb of the direct statement is changed in the indirect to the same tense of the infinitive, and the subject is put in the accusative case.

"If the subject of the verb of saying or thinking and the subject of the infinitive are the same, and are not emphatic, the subject of the infinitive is not expressed, and its modifiers remain nominative."

7. νομίζουσιν οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι τὸν θάνατον εἶναι καὶ ὕπνον.

νομίζουσιν they think
οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι the Athenians
τὸν θάνατον the death
εἶναι to be
καὶ and/merely
ὕπνον sleep

They think, the Athenians do, the death to be merely/also sleep.
The Athenians think/are thinking that death is merely sleep.

8. τοὺς νόμους οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι εἰς λίθους γράφουσιν.

τοὺς νόμους the laws
οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι the Athenians
εἰς λίθους into stones
γράφουσιν they scratch, write

The Athenians write the laws in stones.

9. οὐκ ἔφασαν τὸν θάνατον κακὸν εἶναι ἀνθρώποις.

οὐκ not
ἔφασαν they said
τὸν θάνατον the death
κακὸν evil
εἶναι to be
ἀνθρώποις to men

They were not saying death to be evil to men.
They were not saying that death was evil to men.
They didn't say that death was evil to men.

10. νομίζουσιν οἱ ἆνθρωποι καλὸν εἶναι ἀγαθοὺς φίλους ἔχειν.

νομίζουσιν they think
οἱ ἆνθρωποι the men
καλὸν beautiful
εἶναι to be
ἀγαθοὺς good
φίλους friends
ἔχειν hold, have

The men think that it is a beautiful thing to have good friends.
The men think it beautiful to have good friends.

Tuesday, September 11, 2007

Lesson 4: Reading

1. καλόν ἡσυχία.

kalon // hesuchia
beautiful // calmness

καλόν beautiful thing (neuter singular nominative)
ἡσυχία calmness (feminine singular nominative)

Calmness is a beautiful thing.

A fine thing is calmness.

2. ἡ τοῦ σοφοῦ ψυχὴ ἥσυχός ἐστιν ἐν ταῖς τοῦ βίου συμφοραῖς.

he // tou sophou // psuche // hesuchos // estin // en tais // tou biou // sumphorais

the // of the wise // soul // calm // is // in the // of the life // vicissitudes

ἡ . . . ψθχὴ the . . . soul (feminine singular nominative)
τοῦ σοφοῦ of the wise (masculine singular genitive)
ἥσυχός calm (masculine singular nominative)
ἐστιν he/she/it is (cf. Lesson 12)
ἐν ταῖς . . .
συμφοραῖς in the vicissitudes (feminine dative plural); note: C & P give "misfortune" but my professor, who dreamt in Greek, insisted on vicissitudes as the more accurate translation. I should ask Liddell & Scott what they think. . . .
τοῦ βίου of the life (masculine singular genitive)

The soul of the wise is calm in the vicissitudes of life.

The wise man's soul is calm in the misfortunes of life

3. ἅδικος πλοῦτος οὒποτε βέβαιός ἐστιν.

adikos // ploutos // oupote // bebaios // estin
unjust // wealth // never // secure // is

ἅδικος unjust (adj.; masc. sing. nom.)
πλοῦτος wealth (masc. sing. nom.)
οὒποτε never (adverb)
βέβαιός secure (adj.; masc. sing. nom.)
ἐστιν he / she / it is (cf. Lesson 12)

Unjust wealth is never secure.

Ill-gotten gains are never secure.

4. φεῦγε τὴν τῶν κακῶν φιλίαν καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἒχθραν.

pheuge // ten // tōn kako̅n // philian // kai // ten // to̅n // agatho̅n // echthran
flee // the // of the evil/bad ones // friendship // and // the // of the // good // enmity

φεῦγε flee (imperative; 2nd person sing)
τὴν . . .
φιλίαν the . . . friendship (fem.sing.accusative)
τῶν κακῶν of the evil ones/of the evils (pl. gen.)
and (conj.)
τὴν . . .
ἒχθραν the . . . enmity (fem. sing. acc.)
τῶν ἀγαθῶν of the good ones/ of the goods (pl. gen.)

Flee the friendship of the evil ones and the enmity of the good ones.

5. οἱ νόμοι ψυχὴ τῆς πολιτείας εἰσίν.

hoi nomoi // psuche // tes politeias // eisin
the laws // soul // of the government // are

οἱ νόμοι the laws (pl. masc. nom.)
ψυχὴ soul (sing. nom. fem.)
τῆς πολιτείας of the government (fem. sing. gen.)
εἰσίν they are (cf. Lesson 12)

The laws are the soul of the government.

6. σκηνὴ πᾶς ὁ βίος.

skene // pas // ho bios
tent/stage building/stage // all // the life

σκηνὴ tent, stage building, stage
πᾶς all
ὁ βίος
the life

All life's a tent.

All life is a stage building.
All life's a stage.

7. ὁ τῶν ἀνθρώπων βίος δῶρον τῶν θεῶν ἐστιν.

ho̅ // to̅n anthro̅po̅n // bios // do̅ron // to̅n // theo̅n // estin.
the // of the men // life // gift // of the gods // is

. . . βίος the . . . life (masc. sing. nom.)
τῶν ἀνθρώπων of the human beings (pl. gen.)
δῶρον gift (sing. neuter nom.)
τῶν θεῶν of the gods (pl. gen.)
ἐστιν he/she/it is (cf. Lesson 12)

The life of human beings is a gift of the gods.

8. ἀνθρώπῳ σοφῷ ὁ κόσμος πατρίς ἐστιν.

anthro̅po̅ // sopho̅ // ho̅ kosmos // patris // estin.
to men // wise // the world // native land // is

ἀνθρώπῳ to a man (sing. masc. dat.)
wise (adj; sing. masc. dat.; modifies men)
ὁ κόσμος the world (also order and ornament; nom. masc. sing.)
native land (sing. nom.)
he/she/it is

To a wise man the world is (his) native land.

9. ἐν τῇ τῶν πολιτῶν εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ ἐν τῇ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἀνδρείᾳ καὶ ἐν τῇ τῶν δικαστῶν δικαιοσύνῇ ἡ τῆς πολιτείας ῥώμη ἐστίν.

en te to̅n polito̅n eusebeia kai en te to̅n stratio̅to̅n andreia kai en te to̅n dikasto̅n dikaiosune he tes politeias rhome estin.

in the citizens reverence and in the soldiers bravery/manliness and in the just men justice the of the government strength is

ἐν τῇ . . . εὐσεβείᾳ in the . . . reverence
τῶν πολιτῶν of the citizens
ἐν τῇ . . .
ἀνδρείᾳ in the . . . bravery/manliness
τῶν στρατιωτῶν of the soldiers
ἐν τῇ . . .
δικαιοσύνῇ in the justice
τῶν δικαστῶν of the just ones
ἡ . . .
ῥώμη the . . . strength
τῆς πολιτείας of the government
he/she/it is

In the reverence of the citizens and in the bravery of the soldiers and in the justice of the just men is the strength of the government.

10. τὰ δίκαια ἀεὶ καλά.

ta dikaia aei kala
the just ones/things always beautiful

τὰ δίκαια the just things

Just things are always beautiful.

Always beautiful are just things.

11. βεβαία ἡ πόλις ἧς δίκαιοι οἱ πολῖται.

bebaia he polis hes dikaioi hoi politai
secure the city in which just ones the citizens

βεβαία secure
ἡ πόλις
the city
in which
just ones
οἱ πολῖται
the citizens

Secure is the city in which the citizens are just.

The Declension of αγαθος



N ἀγαθος good
G ἀγαθου of, from good/good's
D ἀγαθῷ to/for/by/with good
A ἀγαθόν good (object of verb)
V ἀγαθέ O good! (in an address)


N ἀγαθή
G ἀγαθῆς
D ἀγαθῇ
A ἀγαθήν
V ὰγαθή


N ἀγαθόν
G ἀγαθοῦ
D ἀγαθῷ
A ἀγαθόν
V ἀγαθόν



N ἀγαθοί
G ἀγαθῶν
D ἀγαθοῖς
A ἀγαθούς
V ἀγαθοί


N ἀγαθαί
G ἀγαθῶν
D ἀγαθαῖς
A ἀγαθάς
V ἀγαθαί


N ἀγαθά
G ἀγαθῶν
D ἀγαθοῖς
A ἀγαθά
V ἀγαθά